What is key in Hill cipher?

What is key in Hill cipher?

The encryption key for a Hill cipher is a square matrix of integers. These integers are taken from the set {0,1,…,n − 1}, where n is the size of the character set used for the plaintext message. (If this is the usual English alphabet, then n = 26.)

Where is the key in the Hill cipher?

For a matrix to be a key for a Hill cipher, the determinant of the matrix must be 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, or 25 modulo 26. 53 77′ [12 -77 [12 197 5 12 1-5 3.] 1.21 3] mod 26. This is a special case because the determinant is 1..

What is key in cipher text?

In cryptography, a key is a string of characters used within an encryption algorithm for altering data so that it appears random. Like a physical key, it locks (encrypts) data so that only someone with the right key can unlock (decrypt) it.

How do you decrypt cipher text in Hill cipher?

To decrypt hill ciphertext, compute the matrix inverse modulo 26 (where 26 is the alphabet length), requiring the matrix to be invertible. Decryption consists in encrypting the ciphertext with the inverse matrix. Note that not all matrices can be adapted to hill cipher.

Is Playfair cipher better than Hill cipher?

Hill cipher is harder to crack than playfair cipher. Explanation: Both hill cipher and playfair cipher are less vulnerable to frequency analysis. But hill cipher is quite vulnerable to other forms of attack and thus less secure than playfair cipher.

What is vigenere cipher example?

For example, in the row of the key is “B” and the ciphertext is “K” and this ciphertext letter appears in the column “J”, that means the first plaintext letter is “J”.

Is Hill cipher Monoalphabetic?

Therefore, we can think of Hill’s system as a monoalphabetic substitution cipher on a 676 character alphabet.

Can you read cipher text?

Ciphertext can’t be read until it has been converted into plaintext (decrypted) with a key. The decryption cipher is an algorithm that transforms the ciphertext back into plaintext. The term cipher is sometimes used as a synonym for ciphertext. However, it refers to the method of encryption rather than the result.

What is cipher text with example?

Ciphertext is what encryption algorithms, or ciphers, transform an original message into. Data is said to be encrypted when a person or device lacking the cipher is unable to read it. They, or it, would need the cipher to decrypt the information.

How do I encrypt using Hill cipher?

To encrypt a message, each block of n letters (considered as an n-component vector) is multiplied by an invertible n × n matrix, against modulus 26. To decrypt the message, each block is multiplied by the inverse of the matrix used for encryption.

What is the advantage of Hill cipher?

Hill cipher is a block cipher that has several advantages such as disguising letter frequencies of the plaintext, its simplicity because of using matrix mul- tiplication and inversion for enciphering and deci- phering, its high speed, and high throughput (Overbey et al., 2005; Saeednia, 2000).

How is the text encoded in the Hill cipher?

The Hill cipher [1] uses matrix multiplication to map the plaintext (text to be encoded) onto the ciphertext (text which has been encoded) using the key matrix,A(1). The plaintext and ciphertext are stored in vectors,PandC respectively, which have the same number of rows as the key matrix.

How to make a Hill cipher 2×2 matrix?

In this process of Hill Cipher, 2×2 matrix, the primary step starts with a keyword that we must convert into a matrix. Depending on the length of the keyword, if it is shorter than three words, then fill it up in alphabetical order. And for longer than 4 words, the first four letters are used in the matrix.

How to transform a plain text message to a cipher text?

This technique uses multiple character keys .Each of the keys encrypts one single character. Each character is replaced by a number (A=0, B=1, …Z=25). After all keys are used, they are recycled. For encryption, Formula used : E= (M+K)mod 26

How to find the determinant in Hill cipher?

The determinant is a number that relates directly to the entries of the matrix. It is found by multiplying the top left number by the bottom right number and subtracting from this the product of the top right number and the bottom left number. This is shown algebraically below.

What do you need to know about the Hill cipher?

Some important concepts are used throughout: Matrix Multiplication; Modular Inverses; Determinants of Matrices; Matrix Adjugates (for finding inverses). To encrypt a message using the Hill Cipher we must first turn our keyword into a key matrix (a 2 x 2 matrix for working with digraphs, a 3 x 3 matrix for working with trigraphs, etc).

How is a cipher key chosen in cryptography?

The matrix used for encryption is the plain text and one matrix is formed is cipher key when we combine or multiple them we get the new matrix called ciphertext, and the key should be chosen randomly from the set of invertible n × n matrices (modulo 26). We have to do encryption on the message ‘ACT’ (n=3).

How to calculate the inverse matrix in Hill cipher?

Starting the Decryption process in Hill Cipher cryptography, the first step is to get the inverse matrix. Here, it is a crucial aspect to calculate and find the key matrix represented as the general method: d = determinant for the key matrix, adj (K) = adjugate matrix for the K.

How do you decrypt a plain text message?

To decrypt the message, we turn the ciphertext back into a plain text, then simply multiply by the inverse matrix of the key matrix as “IFKVIVVMI” in letters. The inverse of the matrix used in the encryption is,