What are toxic biological agents?
Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and their associated toxins. They have the ability to adversely affect human health in a variety of ways, ranging from relatively mild, allergic reactions to serious medical conditions—even death.
What are the three biological toxins?
Examples include botulinum toxins (A-G), tetanus toxin, and staphylococcal enterotoxins (A-F), which are produced by bacteria; tetrodotoxin, and ciguatoxin, which are produced by animals; and ricin toxin, tricothecence mycotoxins, and abrin, which are produced by plants.
What are the types of biological warfare agents?
- Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)
- Botulism (Clostridium botulinum toxin)
- Plague (Yersinia pestis)
- Smallpox (variola major)
- Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)
- Viral hemorrhagic fevers, including. Filoviruses (Ebola, Marburg) Arenaviruses (Lassa, Machupo)
What are the most common biological weapons?
In this Article
Agent Type Anthrax Bio Ricin Bio Sarin Chem Smallpox Bio
What are the most common general symptoms to biological toxins?
Depending on the toxin and amount and route of exposure, health effects can range from minor (skin or eye irritation, headache, nausea) to severe (respiratory distress, muscle weakness, seizures, death).
What are examples of toxins?
- botulinum toxin A (from bacteria Clostridium botulinum)
- tetanus toxin A (from bacteria – Clostridium tetani)
- diphtheria toxin (from bacteria – Corynebacterium diphtheriae)
- dioxin (manufactured)
- muscarine (from mushrooms – Amanita muscaria)
- bufotoxin (from the common toad – genus Bufo)
- sarin (manufactured).
What is the most poisonous biological substance known to humans?
In particular, botulinum toxin, the most poisonous biological substance known, is used for treatment of a myriad of human neuromuscular disorders characterized by involuntary muscle contractions.
What kind of toxins are used in biological warfare?
Protein toxins include ricin, abrin, botulinum, Clostridium perfringens toxin, Corynebacterium diphteriae toxin, microcystins, Staphylococcus aureus toxins, shigatoxin, and tetanus toxin.
What are the different types of biological agents?
TYPES OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS Bacteria, viruses, rickettsia, and toxins may be used as biological agents in modern warfare. Of these, toxins are probably the most effective.
What’s the difference between chemical warfare and biological warfare?
Toxins, from a pharmacological and toxicological perspective, can be considered chemical weapons. Comparison of physicochemical and functional characteristics place toxins between chemical warfare agents and biological warfare agents. There are several differences between toxins and traditional chemical warfare agents.
What are the different types of bioterrorism attacks?
Bioterrorism. Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can kill or incapacitate people, livestock and crops. A biological attack is the deliberate release of germs or other biological substances that can make you sick. There are three basic groups of biological agents that could likely be used as weapons: bacteria, viruses and toxins.